πίσω

ΜΑ ΟΙ ΡΩΜΑΙΟΙ ΔΕΝ ΕΓΡΑΦΑΝ KAI ΟΜΙΛΟΥΣΑΝ ΜΟΝΟ ΛΑΤΙΝΙΚΑ;

 

ΜΙΑ ΔΙΑΚΡΙΤΙΚΑ  ΔΡΟΜΟΛΟΓΗΜΕΝΗ ΠΡΟΠΑΓΑΝΔΑ Η ΟΠΟΙΑ ΚΑΛΑ ΚΡΑΤΕΙ ΚΑΙΡΟΥΣ ΤΩΡΑ ΣΕ ΟΛΟΥΣ ΤΟΥΣ ΤΟΜΕΙΣ ΚΑΙ ΠΑΝΤΟΥ ΚΑΙ ΜΕ ΟΠΟΙΟΝ ΤΡΟΠΟ ΔΕΙΤΕ ΜΕΡΙΚΑ ΠΑΡΑΔΕΙΓΜΑΤΑ ΠΑΡΑΚΑΤΩ

           ΣΗΜΕΙΩΣΗ ΓΙΑ ΤΟΝ ΑΝΑΓΝΩΣΤΗ :      ΤΑ ΚΟΚΚΙΝΑ ΚΑΙ ΓΑΛΑΖΙΑ ΓΡΑΜΜΑΤΑ ΕΙΝΑΙ ΔΙΚΑ ΜΟΥ

 ΣΤΗ ΑΜΕΡΙΚΑΝΙΚΗ ΙΣΤΟΣΕΛΙΔΑ

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 NERO
(AD 54 to 68)

Nero Claudius Caesar was born in December AD 37, the son of Cornelius Domitius Ahenobarbus and Agrippina the Younger who was the great-granddaughter of Augustus.  Nero was adopted by the emperor Claudius in AD 50 and through the machinations of his mother who apparently poisoned Claudius, Nero ascended to the throne upon his death in AD 54.  Nero was only seventeen at this time and was strongly influenced by Agrippina.  However, in AD 59 he had Agrippina murdered to rid himself of her control and soon afterwards murdered his wife Octavia in order to marry Poppaea who had been married to Otho, a friend of Nero’s.

Nero had a number of artistic passions such as singing and writing poetry.  He also had a love for horsemanship.  He founded a number of new games such as the Juvenalia in which nobles were encouraged to compete and the Neronia.  He often performed his talents in public which was considered scandalous by the traditional members of the Roman aristocracy.  As a result of this, Nero resolved to go on a Greek tour to perform his talents since the Greeks certainly admired this.  Nero’s extravagance and vanity along with his depreciation of the coinage and the taking of money from the rich made him unpopular.  Nero was believed (ΠΙΣΤΕΥΕΤΑΙ ΔΕΝ ΑΠΟΔΕΙΚΝΥΕΤΑΙ) to have started the great fire of Rome which took place in AD 64 and destroyed half the city.  According to rumor (ΦΗΜΗΣ)he set the blaze in order to make room for his vast and magnificent Golden Palace.  In order to avoid such a blemish to his name he used the Christians as scapegoats and had many of them tortured and killed.

Shortly after these events took place most people in the realm hated and feared Nero which led to the rise of conspiracies.  Nero discovered a conspiracy in AD 65 led by Caius Calpurnius Piso who intended to assassinate Nero and have himself declared emperor.  Piso and his accomplices were all immediately executed.  As a result of this conspiracy, Nero now suspected everyone and had numerous men killed.  Early in AD 68, upon his return to Rome from his Greek tour, Nero found all corners of the Roman Empire rising in defiance against him.  These men included Vindex, governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, Galba, governor in Spain, and in Africa, Clodius Macer.  The Praetorian Guard deserted Nero and proclaimed Galba as emperor which forced Nero to flee from Rome and commit suicide in June, AD 68.

 ΟΝΟΜΑΖΑΝ ΤΑ ΝΟΜΙΣΜΑΤΑ ΤΕΤΡΑΔΡΑΧΜΑ;

Silver Tetradrachm (ΤΕΤΡΑΔΡΑΧΜΟ)
(c. AD 63 to 66)

 

Obverse, Tetradrachm of Nero

Reverse, Tetradrachm of Nero

Obverse: Bust of Nero wearing radiate crown encircled by NERO KLAU KAIS SEB GER AY.

Reverse: Bust of Poppaea encircled by POPPAIA SEBASTH. LIA in field.

This coin struck in Syria refers to Nero’s wife Poppaea whom he married in AD 63.  Poppaea was known for her beauty and extravagance.  In AD 66 she became the victim of Nero’s brutality when she died as a result of a kick to the abdomen while pregnant which Nero had delivered during a fit of anger.  The reverse of the coin pictures Poppaea along with the Greek legend POPPAIA SEBASTH which states her name and refers to her as the wife of Nero.  The LIA is most likely the date of the coin.

The obverse of this coin shows Nero wearing a radiate crown, the headdress of the divine.  Nero was the first living Roman to wear this crown on coin types.  Before this, only men who had been deified after death, such as Julius Caesar and Augustus, were given this honour.  This could possibly be due to the fact that he was often referred to as Apollo as a result of his artistic talents or simply because he considered himself to be something more than human.  The Greek legend is Nero’s full name, NERO KLAU KAIS SEB GER AU, Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus and the title imperator.  LIA refers to the coin’s date.

 GALBA
(June AD 68 to January AD 69)
Galba was declared emperor by the Praetorian Guard in June AD 68 after having been invited by Vindex, the governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, to replace Nero.  Galba took the title of Caesar and along with Otho, the governor of Lusitania, marched towards Rome and entered the city in October to assume his new position.  Galba experienced threats from others who had also rose in revolt against Nero and wanted a share in the powers of Rome for themselves.  These men were Nymphidias Sabinus who professed himself to be the son of the emperor Gaius and therefore had a claim to the principate, and Clodius Macer who refused to recognize Galba and decided to raise his own legion.  Galba had both men executed.  Galba had the reputation for being an honest, but suspicious administrator.

However, Galba’s reign did not lost long for he failed to pay the donative to the soldiers which he had promised them.  The soldiers on the Rhine rose up against him in January AD 69 and, having offended Otho by having Lucius Calpurnius Piso adopted as his successor, Otho organized a conspiracy against Galba among members of the Praetorian Guard who murdered him.

Silver Tetradrachm (ΤΕΤΡΑΔΡΑΧΜΟ)
(AD 68 to 69)

Obverse, Tetradrachm of Galba

Reverse, Tetradrachm of Galba

Obverse: Head of Galba laureate, encircled by <SEROUI> GALBA AUTO KAIS SE; LB below. 

Reverse: Eleutheria leaningon column holding wreath in right hand and sceptre in left hand, encircled by ELEU<QERIA>.

This tetradrachm struck in the province of Egypt announced Galba as the new ruler of the Roman Empire and the liberator of the Romans from the brutal ways of the emperor Nero.  The obverse contains the portrait of Galba and the Greek legend <SEROUI> GALBA AUTO KAIS SE which states Galba’ full title and refers to him as commander-in-chief of the military forces.  The LB is the date of the coin.  The reverse depicts Eleutheria, otherwise known to the Romans as Liberty, holding a laurel wreath symbolic of victory and a sceptre which represents her divinity.  The Greek legend ELEU<QERIA> is the proper name “Liberty.”

8 ΜΗΝΕΣ ΕΜΕΙΝΕ ΜΟΝΟ ΑΥΤΟΚΡΑΤΟΡΑΣ ΚΑΙ ΠΡΟΛΑΒΕ  ΚΑΙ ΕΞΕΔΩΣΕ ΝΟΜΙΣΜΑ ΜΕ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΗ ΓΡΑΦΗ…!!!.

VESPASIAN
(AD 69 to 79)

Titus Flavius Vespasianus was originally the son of equestrian parents.  His father was a tax gatherer and his mother was of equestrian status also, but had a brother who had entered the Senate.  Vespasian was praetor in AD 40 and consul in 51 and had a successful military career.  He was a legate in the Claudian invasion of Britain and was appointed by Nero as the commander in the mission to suppress the Jewish revolt which he managed to subdue by the time of Nero’s death.  In July AD 69, the Eastern legions declared Vespasian emperor and upon Antonius Primus’ (legionary commander on the side of Vespasian) entrance into Rome he was adopted as emperor by the Senate.

Vespasian’s reign was a peaceful one in which he made a number of changes to help repair the damages caused by the reign of Nero and the civil war.  He increased provincial taxation to help repair the deficit and restored discipline to the armies.  With the funds he raised he was able to restore the Capital, build his Forum and the Temple of Peace, and begin construction on the famous Colosseum.  After rebellions in Judaea and on the Rhineland had been suppressed, Vespasian made efforts to expand the boundaries of the Roman Empire by annexing northern England and pacifying Wales as well as pressing on into Scotland and southern Germany.

Vespasian died in June AD 79 and was deified soon afterwards.  Vespasian was credited with being an industrious yet humble emperor who kept with tradition and brought to an end the civil war of 68-69 which restored peace to the Roman Empire.

Silver Tetradrachm (ΤΕΤΡΑΔΡΑΧΜΟ)
(AD 69 to 79)

Obverse, Tetradrachm of Vespasian

Reverse, Tetradrachm of Vespasian

Obverse: Head of Vespasian laureate, encircled by AUTOK KAIS SEBA OESPASIANOU. LB to right of neck.  

Reverse: Eirene (Peace)standing, holding ears ofcorn in right hand and caduceus in left,encircled by EIRHNH

A dominant theme on the coinage of Vespasian was peace.  Vespasian was credited with bringing an end to the civil wars and restoring peace to the empire.  The obverse of this coin shows the head of Vespasian wearing the laurel crown along with the Greek legend AUTOK KAIS SEBA OESPASIANOU which states Vespasian’s name and title as commander-in-chief of Rome’s military forces.  The LB is the date of the coin.

The reverse depicts Eirene, who was known to the Romans as Peace, holding ears of corn and a caduceus.  The corn ears were an Egyptian symbol for prosperity which shows that the Alexandrians allowed themselves a certain degree of freedom when choosing coin types although the coins were struck in honor of the Roman emperor.  The Greek legend surrounding the scene is the goddess’ name EIRHNH.

ΑΥΤΟΣ ΕΜΕΙΝΕ 10 ΧΡΟΝΙΑ ΣΤΟΝ ΘΡΟΝΟ ΚΑΙ  ΕΞΕΔΩΣΕ ΝΟΜΙΣΜΑ ΣΤΗ ΓΛΩΣΣΑ ΠΟΥ ΧΡΗΣΙΜΟΠΟΙΟΥΣΕ Ο ΛΑΟΣ ΚΑΙ ΤΟ ΕΚΑΝΕ ΓΙΑ ΝΑ ΚΑΤΑΛΑΒΑΙΝΕΙ Ο ΚΟΣΜΑΚΗΣ ΚΑΙ ΝΑ ΣΥΝΑΛΛΑΣΣΕΤΑΙ , ΤΟ ΓΡΑΦΕΙ ΕΠΑΝΩ ΓΙΑ ΝΑ ΓΙΝΕΙ ΔΗΜΟΦΙΛΗΣ …ΕΤΣΙ ΦΑΙΝΕΤΑΙ…. Η  ΟΧΙ…!!! ΜΑ ΕΙΝΑΙ ΓΡΑΜΜΕΝΟ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΑ .!!....

 LUCIUS VERUS
(AD 161 to 169)
(Co-Emperor with Marcus Aurelius)

Lucius Verus was born in 130, the son of Lucius Aelius who had been adopted as Hadrian’s successor.  When Aelius died prematurely in 138, Hadrian adopted Antoninus Pius and required him to adopt both Lucius Verus and Marcus Aurelius.  When the emperor Antoninus Pius died in 161, Verus did not have the special standing which Marcus Aurelius possessed, but Aurelius nonetheless immediately made Verus co-emperor complete with tribunician power and the title Augustus.  This was the first time in history that the powers of the emperor were fully shared.  Aurelius clarified Verus’ position by marrying him to his daughter Lucilla.  Despite being weak, indulgent, and a poor administrator, Verus was given a command in the East against the Parthians during 163-166 and even celebrated a triumph although the victories were actually won by Statius Priscus and Avidius Cassius.  He died in 169 on return to Rome which is said to have been a relief to Marcus.

Bronze Tetradrachm (ΤΕΤΡΑΔΡΑΧΜΟ)
(AD 161 to 169)

 

Obverse, Tetradrachm of Lucius Verus

Reverse, Tetradrachm of Lucius Verus

Obverse: Head of Verus laureate, encircled by L AURELOIC OUHROC CEB

Reverse: Victory advancing, holding wreath in right hand and palm in left. D to left in field.

 This tetradrachm struck in Alexandria alludes to Verus’(ΑΦΡΟΔΙΤΗ) victories in the East against the Parthians.(ΠΑΡΘΟΙ)  The obverse shows the head of Verus(ΑΦΡΟΔΙΤΗ) wearing the laurel crown and the Greek legend which states “Lucius Aurelius Verus Augustus.”  The reverse shows Victoria(ΝΙΚΗ) walking, carrying a wreath and a palm.  The D which appears is the mintmark where the coin was struck.

GORDIAN III

(AD 238 to 244)

Gordian III was the grandson of the emperor Gordian I who was responsible for removing Maximinus from power in 238.  However, in this same year upon becoming emperors, Gordian I and his son Gordian II faced opposition from Capellianus who remained loyal to Maximinus.  Gordian II faced him in battle and was killed which caused Gordian I to commit suicide after a reign of only twenty-two days.  Balbinus and Pupienus now became emperors, but were soon murdered and Gordian III was saluted as emperor at only thirteen years old.  Initially, affairs were conducted by his mother, then by a praetorian prefect, Timesitheus, who died in 243 and was replaced by an Arab called PhilippusKnowing that the soldiers wanted a man, not a mere child, as their ruler, Philippus had Gordian murdered at Zaitha in 244.

ΤΟ ΞΕΡΕΤΕ ΟΤΙ ΥΠΗΡΧΑΝ ΆΡΑΒΕΣ ΤΟ 244 ΜΕΤΑ ΧΡΙΣΤΟ ΣΤΗ ΠΕΡΙΟΧΗ ΚΑΙ ΜΑΛΙΣΤΑ ΚΑΝΑΝΕ ΝΤΑΛΑΒΕΡΙ ΜΕ ΑΥΤΟΚΡΑΤΟΡΙΛΙΚΙΑ; KAI ΚΑΙ ΜΑΛΙΣΤΑ ΕΙΧΑΝ ΟΝΟΜΑΤΑ ΟΠΩΣ ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΣ…………!!!!

 

ΣΥΝΕΧΙΖΟΥΜΕ ΑΥΤΑ ΠΙΟ ΚΑΤΩ ΑΠΟ ΑΥΤΑ ΠΟΥ ΒΡΗΚΑΜΕ

ΣΤΗ ΑΜΕΡΙΚΑΝΙΚΗ ΙΣΤΟΣΕΛΙΔΑ

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Near Eastern
Art

Semitic Gods
first or second century A.D.
Louvre, Paris

Semitic Gods

Description: Plaster relief of three gods in Hellenistic armor, one with Persian trousers, all carry Roman gladii (swords).  All three facing front.  Height . 61 m, length .73 m, width .16 m.

Provenance: Religious relief, original of limestone, from court of the temple of Bel in Palmyra.

The triad of Baalshamin (center) and Malakbel and Aglibol (gods of the sun and moon), from the temple of Bel in Palmyra in the Syrian desert on an important caravan route to Babylonia.  A no doubt Greek work on the outskirts of the Roman Empire in the first or second century A.D.  The view that it is of an even later date could find its defenders.  In any case, the frontality and resulting hieratic attitude reinforced by the identical posture of all three is not necessarily an oriental ingrained habit in representing figures, but space does not allow a detailed discussion of the problem.  A western approach is evident in details.  The spread of western influence to Palmyra is evident from the Hellenistic lamellar armor worn by the gods and the Roman gladius (sword) carried by all three.  Underneath are worn traditional oriental tunics and trousers.

ΕΔΩ ΘΑΥΜΑΖΟΥΜΕ ΣΗΜΙΤΕΣ ΘΕΟΥΣ ΜΕ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΗ ΦΟΡΕΣΙΑ ΚΑΙ ΟΠΛΙΣΜΟ …. ΚΑΙ ΜΕ ΡΩΜΑΙΙΚΑ  ΣΠΑΘΙΑ…. ΚΑΙ ΟΜΩΣ ΕΤΣΙ ΛΕΕΙ ΕΔΩ..!!!!  ΕΙΝΑΙ ΜΑΛΙΣΤΑ ΧΩΡΙΣ ΑΜΦΙΒΟΛΙΑ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΗ ΚΑΤΑΣΚΕΥΗ …..ΤΟ ΠΙΣΤΕΥΩ ΤΟΥΣ ΣΚΑΛΙΖΑΝΕ ΟΙ ΑΝΘΡΩΠΟΙ..ΤΗΝ ΕΜΠΝΕΥΣΗ ΤΟΥΣ… ΕΜΠΝΕΟΝΤΑΙ ΑΠΟ ΤΟΝ ΒΑΑΛ..ΓΕΝΙΚΑ ΟΙ ΕΛΛΗΝΕΣ ΑΠΟ ΤΟΥΣ ΣΗΜΙΤΕΣ ΕΜΠΝΕΟΝΤΑΙ ΑΙΩΝΕΣ ΤΩΡΑ..!!!!!....ΚΑΙ ΤΗΝ ΓΛΩΣΣΑ ΤΟΥΣ ΑΠΟ ΕΚΕΙ ΤΗΝ ΤΣΙΜΠΗΣΑΝ ΤΙ ΝΟΜΙΖΕΤΑΙ………!!!!.

Rampin Head
c. 550-520 B.C.
Louvre, Paris

Rampin Head

Description:  Head of an equestrian statue made of resin.  Intricate hair and beard, perhaps Mesopotamian influence.  Right cheek and nose damaged.  Height 43 cm, length 21 cm, depth 20 cm.

Provenance:  Original found on the Acropolis in Athens.  The torso and horse thought to belong to the head are in the Acropolis Museum, Athens.

This head of an equestrian statue was discovered on the Acropolis of Athens in the early nineteenth century and bought by the French diplomat Rampin, whence the name.  Practically contemporaneous with the Kouros of Paros, it is a more expert work as is shown by the finer modelling of the face and the highly elaborate hairdo accomplished with an expert punch and chisel.  The archaic smile, as it is called, is a primitive artistic convention which was a remedy for the problem of producing a natural mouth in proper perspective to the narrow face.  The Paros Kouros has the same problem to a lesser degree thanks to his oval face.

ΑΥΤΗ ΕΙΝΑΙ Η ΚΕΦΑΛΗ ΚΟΥΡΟΥ Η ΟΠΟΙΑ ΒΡΕΘΗΚΕ ΣΤΗΝ ΑΚΡΟΠΟΛΗ ΤΩΝ ΑΘΗΝΩΝ ……ΕΧΕΙ ΛΕΕΙ ΕΠΗΡΕΙΑ ΑΠΟ ΤΗΝ ΜΕΣΟΠΟΤΑΜΙΑ…..ΤΟ ΒΑΣΙΚΟ ΚΑΛΛΙΤΕΧΝΙΚΟ ΡΕΥΜΑ ΕΙΝΑΙ  ΣΗΜΙΤΙΚΟ ΔΗΛΑΔΗ …..!!!!  ΛΕΕΙ ΕΠΙΣΗΣ ΟΤΙ ΤΟ ΕΦΕΡΕ..!!!( ΕΚΛΕΨΕ ΑΠΟ ΕΔΩ )ΑΠΟ ΤΗΝ ΑΚΡΟΠΟΛΗ ΕΝΑΣ ΠΛΙΑΤΣΙΚΟΛΟΓΟΣ ΟΝΟΜΑΤΙ  ΡΑΜΠΙΝ ΟΠΩΣ ΛΕΜΕ….. ΓΙΤΖΑΚ ΡΑΜΠΙΝ….. ΚΑΙ ΓΙΑ ΑΥΤΟ ΤΟ ΟΝΟΜΑΣΑΝ ΟΙ ΚΛΕΠΤΑΠΟΔΟΧΟΙ ΤΟΥ ΛΟΥΒΡΟΥ «ΤΟ ΚΕΦΑΛΙ ΤΟΥ ΡΑΜΠΙΝ»…!!!!  ΚΑΙ  ΣΥΜΠΕΡΑΙΝΟΥΜΕ ΟΤΙ  ΜΕΤΑ -ΙΔΙΟΣ ΟΙ ΑΛΛΟΙ ΛΑΟΙ ΠΟΥ ΔΕΝ ΓΝΩΡΙΖΟΥΝ ΑΚΡΙΒΩΣ ΑΛΛΑ ΚΑΙ ΟΙ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΝΕΣ ΣΕ ΛΙΓΑ ΧΡΟΝΙ..!!- ΟΤΙ ΑΠΟ ΟΛΑ ΑΥΤΑ ΟΤΙ ΟΙ ΚΟΥΡΟΙ… ΑΡΧΑΪΚΟΙ ΚΑΙ ΠΡΙΝ …ΟΤΙ ΑΥΤΟΥΣ ΟΙ ΕΛΛΗΝΕΣ ΤΟΥΣ ΑΝΤΕΓΡΑΦΑΝ ΑΠΟ ΤΟΥΣ ΣΗΜΙΤΕΣ...........!!!!!!!!!!! … ΕΚΤΟΣ ΑΠΟ ΤΗΝ ΓΛΩΣΣΑ ΚΑΙ ΤΟΙΣ ΤΕΧΝΕΣ ..!!!   ΠΟΥ ΙΣΤΟΡΙΚΑ ΔΕΝ ΑΠΟΔΕΙΚΝΥΕΤΑΙ ΟΤΙ ΥΠΗΡΧΑΝ ΜΟΝΟ ΣΗΜΙΤΕΣ (ΑΝ ΥΠΗΡΧΑΝ ΣΤΗΝ ΧΡΟΝΙΚΗ ΠΕΡΙΟΔΟ) ΕΚΕΙ …, ΕΚΕΙΝΗ ΤΟΥΛΑΧΙΣΤΟΝ ΤΗΝ ΕΠΟΧΗ…..ΕΚΤΟΣ ΑΝ ΟΛΟΙ ΟΙ ΛΑΟΙ ΠΟΥ ΖΟΥΣΑΝ ΣΤΗΝ ΜΕΣΟΠΟΤΑΜΙΑ ΗΤΑΝ ΟΛΟΙ ΣΗΜΙΤΕΣ…!!!!  ..ΤΙ ΣΗΜΑΣΙΑ ΕΧΕΙ ΑΦΟΥ ΕΙΜΑΣΤΕ …..ΟΟΟΟΛΟΙ  ΙΝΔΟΕΥΡΩΠΑΙΟΙ…!!!! ΕΝΑ ΠΡΑΜΑ ΕΙΜΑΣΤΕ ΑΔΕΡΦΙΑ…!!.... ΚΑΙ ΑΥΤΟ ΧΩΡΙΣ ΙΣΤΟΡΙΚΗ ΑΠΟΔΕΙΞΗ ΒΕΒΑΙΑ………..

ΚΑΙ ΣΥΝΕΧΙΖΟΥΜΕ ΣΤΟΥΣ ΚΑΤΑΤΟΠΙΣΤΙΚΟΥΣ ΔΙΚΤΥΑΚΟΥΣ ΤΟΠΟΥΣ......

Roman Republic
Third Century BC

Gold Coin (AV = 60 As)
(240 to 229 BC)

 

Obverse, Gold Coin of Roman Republic

Reverse, Gold Coin of Roman Republic

Obverse:  Head of Mars wearing Corinthian helmet and chlamys; behind X. 

Reverse:  Eagle standing onthunderbolt, wings spread; ROMA below. 

The obverse of this gold coin shows Mars(ΑΡΗΣ) wearing a crested Corinthian (ΚΟΡΙΝΘΙΑΚΟ)helmet and a chlamys which was a short military cloak.  Behind his head is the mintmark X.  Mars (ΑΡΗΣ)was a very important deity in Rome considered to be the protector of the city and the god who accompanied the Roman forces into battle.  According to Roman myth Romulus, the founder of Rome, was the son of this great and powerful god.  The reverse depicts an eagle holding a thunderbolt in its talons.  The eagle was a symbol for Rome's power while the thunderbolt represented Jupiter(ΔΙΑΣ).  The eagle was the bearer of Jupiter’s (ΔΙΟΣ)thunderbolts.  Below the eagle is the legend ROMA.  The obverse reflects Rome as a strong military power after their success in the First Punic War.

Silver Didrachm (ΔΙΔΡΑΧΜΟ)
(c. 225 to 212 BC)

Obverse, Silver Didrachm of Roman Republic

Reverse, Silver Didrachm of Roman Republic

Obverse:Laureate Jani-form head of Dioscuri.

Reverse:  Jupiter in quadrigadriven by Nike.  He holds a spear in his left hand and a thunderbolt in his right. Below, ROMA within line border.

This type was presumably struck at a time when the Romans were preparing for a possible invasion by the Gauls.  The obverse shows a (ΙΑΝΟΣ)Jani-form head of the Dioscuri(ΔΙΟΣΚΟΥΡΟΙ), the sons of Jupiter(ΔΙΟΣ). The Dioscuri were the two sons of Jupiter known as Castor (ΚΑΣΤΩΡ)and Pollux(ΠΟΛΥΔΕΥΚΗΣ) whose mother was the wife of Tyndarus,(ΤΥΝΔΑΡΟΣ) the king of Sparta(ΣΠΑΡΤΗ).  Festivals were celebrated in Rome in honor of these sons of Jupiter(ΔΙΟΣ) since it was believed that they fought valiantly for the Romans at the Battle of Lake Regillus which was believed to have taken place in the early years of the Republic.  They were considered to be great heroes by the Romans and protectors of the Roman people.  The reverse shows Jupiter, the king of the gods, holding a spear  and a thunderbolt, in a quadriga driven by Nike (Victory).  A quadriga was a feature commonly found on Greek coins of Syracuse, which indicates that early Roman coin types were influenced by the Greeks who had been employed to develop these coins.  The quadriga was a four horse chariot driven by a conqueror during triumphal processions.  A triumph was a ceremony which took place in honor of an military leader who had been victorious in battle.  Jupiter was considered to be the conqueror of all things and was the god in whose honor a triumph was held.

ΣΤΟΥΣ ΣΥΜΒΟΛΙΣΜΟΥΣ ΑΥΤΟΥ ΤΟΥ ΔΙΔΡΑΧΜΟΥ ΚΑΤΙ ΠΟΥ ΔΕΝ ΕΙΝΑΙ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΟ ΕΧΟΥΝ ΕΠΙΤΕΛΟΥΣ ΑΥΤΟΙ ΟΙ ΡΩΜΑΙΟΙ… ΕΝΑ!!!.... ΜΟΝΟ ΠΡΑΓΜΑ ΕΝΑ….!!!!!............ΒΡΕΙΤΕ ΠΑΡΑΚΑΛΩ ΕΝΑ !!!

Carthaginian Electrum Shekel
(216 to 215 BC)

 

Obverse, Carthaginian Electrum Shekel

Reverse, Carthaginian Electrum Shekel

Obverse:  Jani-form head of Persephone, wreathed.

Reverse:  Jupiter in quadriga driven by Nike.

This shekel was issued by the Carthaginians while they occupied Capua, a city in western Italy, during the Second Punic War (218-201 BC).  We know that these coins are Carthaginian because they are identical in metal and weight as coins issued at Carthage at the same time.  The obverse shows the wreathed, jani-form head of Persephone (ΠΕΡΣΕΦΟΝΗ ) who was the patron deity of Carthaginian money.  The reverse shows Jupiter (ΔΙΑΣ)in a quadriga(ΤΕΘΡΙΠΠΟ) driven by Nike (ΝΙΚΗ)(Victory) which is a symbol of the military power of the Carthaginians.  This quadriga is similar to those shown on Roman coins, but is of poor quality.  Therefore, this coin could not have been issued under Roman authority.

 ΕΔΩ ΕΝΑ ΝΟΜΙΣΜΑ ΠΟΥ ΑΠΕΙΚΟΝΙΖΕΙ ΤΗΝ ΠΕΡΣΕΦΟΝΗ ΚΑΙ ΕΧΕΙ ΤΟ ΤΕΘΡΙΠΠΟ ΤΗΣ ΝΙΚΗΣ ΤΟ  ΟΝΟΜΑΖΟΥΝ … ΣΕΚΕΛ… !!!  ΤΟ ΟΝΟΜΑ ΠΟΥ ΧΡΗΣΙΜΟΠΟΙΟΥΝ ΟΙ ΙΣΡΑΗΛΙΝΟΙ ΣΗΜΕΡΑ ΓΙΑ ΤΟ ΝΟΜΙΣΜΑ ΤΟΥΣ…..!!! ΣΗΜΙΤΕΣ …ΦΟΙΝΙΚΕΣ……. ΚΑΡΘΑΓΕΝΗ….. ….. ΣΕΚΕΛ ……. ΙΣΡΑΗΛ ………. ΣΕΚΕΛ
ΤΥΧΑΙΟ ΕΤΣΙ!!!!......ΕΠΟΜΕΝΗ ΤΑΚΤΙΚΗ ΜΕ ΔΙΑΣΠΟΡΑ ΕΙΔΗΣΕΩΝ ΜΕ ΟΠΟΙΟΔΗΠΟΤΕ ΤΡΟΠΟ …ΛΕΜΕ ΤΩΡΑ …..Ο ΑΝΝΙΒΑΣ ΗΤΑΝ ΟΠΩΣΔΗΠΟΤΕ ΕΒΡΑΪΚΗΣ ΚΑΤΑΓΩΓΗΣ…..ΗΔΗ ΒΡΙΣΚΟΥΝΕ ΑΓΓΛΟΙ«ΚΑΘΗΓΗΤΕΣ» ΜΕ ΤΗΝ ΜΕΘΟΔΟ DNA ΟΤΙ ΑΝΑΚΑΛΥΨΑΝ ΠΟΛΛΟΥΣ ΛΕΕΙ «ΦΟΙΝΙΚΕΣ» ΝΑ ΚΥΚΛΟΦΟΡΟΥΝ ΕΚΕΙ ΜΑΖΙ ΜΕ ΤΟΥΣ ΕΒΡΑΙΟΥΣ ΣΤΗΝ ΠΑΛΑΙΣΤΙΝΗ…. !!!  

ΣΤΗΝ ΤΟΥΡΚΙΑ ΤΟΥΛΑΧΙΣΤΟΝ ΕΝΤΟΣ ΤΙΣ ΣΗΜΕΡΙΝΗΣ ΤΟΥΣ ΕΠΙΚΡΑΤΕΙΑΣ ΤΑ ΣΧΟΛΙΚΑ ΒΙΒΛΙΑ ΚΑΙ ΟΙ ΑΚΑΔΗΜΙΕΣ ΛΕΝΕ ΤΡΟΜΕΡΑ ΠΡΑΓΜΑΤΑ… ΑΠΙΣΤΕΥΤΑ …ΑΛΛΑ ΕΝΤΟΣ ΤΙΣ ΕΠΙΚΡΑΤΕΙΑΣ ΤΟΥΣ…..ΠΡΟΣ ΤΟ ΠΑΡΟΝ… ΕΝΩ ΕΔΩ ΠΕΡΑ ΕΧΟΥΜΕ ΠΑΓΚΟΣΜΙΑ ΕΠΙΚΡΑΤΕΙΑ ΜΕΣΩΝ ΚΑΙ  ΑΠΙΣΤΕΥΤΩΝ ΚΑΤΑΣΤΑΣΕΩΝ ΜΕ  ΔΙΑΣΠΟΡΑ ΕΞΑΙΡΕΤΙΚΗΣ  !!!!!!!!!....ΔΙΑΣΤΡΕΒΛΩΣΗΣ ….ΛΕΤΕ ΝΑ ΚΑΝΩ ΛΑΘΟΣ…….!

Kouros of Piombino
c. 500 B.C.
Louvre, Paris

Kouros of Piombino

Description:  Plaster model with bronze finish.  Standing youth with left foot forward, right hand extending forward from elbow, left arm at side.  Height 1.28 m.

Provenance:  Original of bronze, found at Piombino, Italy.

This kouros was recovered from the sea as were a number of other bronzes.  Most bronzes were melted down during the Christian Dark Ages.  The present one was found near the Tuscan port of Piombino, whence its name.  He is an enigma.  His stance is archaic with his left foot forward, the weight equally distributed on both feet, etc.  The rest, however, seems to be predominantly transitional, preclassical.  The hairdo is very "advanced", while the facial features almost have the suavity and smoothness of the classical.  A dedicatory text in Doric Greek on one of the feet, not reproduced in this copy, links the work with Magna Graecia (in southern Italy), which only adds to the mystery.  There is literary evidence of Roman lovers of the archaic.  It is quite possible that this kouros is one of many archaic copies, suitably altered to fit the more sophisticated taste of the Roman upper classes.

Η ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΗ ΤΕΧΝΗ ΟΝΟΜΑΖΕΤΑΙ ΕΔΩ ΠΙΟΝΜΠΙΝΟ.., ΟΥΤΕ ΚΑΝ ΜΕ ΤΗΝ ΟΝΟΜΑΣΙΑ ΤΗΝ ΑΡΧΑΙΑ ΤΗΣ ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΗΣ ΠΟΛΗΣ ΑΥΤΗΣ..!!!

 

Girl Athlete
c. 330-300 B.C.
British Museum, London

Description:  Dark green oxidized bronze finish on resin.  Small female figure holding a strigil in left hand with right hand raised and shielding the eyes.  Height 25.8 cm.

Provenance:  Original of bronze, it was once itself the handle of a strigil.  Found at Palestrina in the sarcophagus of a women.

The original forms the handle of a large and decorative strigil, an instrument used to scrape dust, oil, and sweat from the skin after exercise; the girl holds a strigil in her left hand and with her right either shades her eyes or puts the victory crown on her head.  Made in Etruria around the fifth century B.C. it was found at Palestrina in the sarcophagus of a woman.

ΠΕΣΤΕ ΜΟΥ ΤΙ…. ΣΧΕΔΙΟ…. ΣΧΗΜΑ ΑΡΧΙΤΕΚΤΟΝΙΚΗ… ΗΘΗ ….ΕΘΙΜΑ ….ΘΕΟΥΣ - ΤΡΟΠΟΣ ΛΑΤΡΕΙΑΣ -ΜΟΥΣΙΚΑ ΟΡΓΑΝΑ -ΤΡΟΠΟ ΤΑΦΗΣ- ΧΟΡΟ-ΡΟΥΧΙΣΜΟ-ΤΡΟΠΟ ΛΕΙΤΟΥΡΓΙΑΣ ΣΤΟ ΚΡΑΤΟΣ -ΣΤΟΝ ΣΤΡΑΤΟ -ΜΟΡΦΕΣ ΑΓΑΛΜΑΤΩΝ-ΚΑΙ ΟΤΙ ΑΛΛΟ ΒΡΕΙΤΕ ……….ΠΟΥ ΛΕΝΕ ΟΤΙ ΕΧΟΥΝ ΒΡΕΙ ΣΤΙΣ ΑΝΑΣΚΑΦΕΣ ΤΙΣ ΕΤΡΟΥΡΙΑΣ ΤΩΝ ΕΤΡΟΥΣΚΩΝ ΔΗΛΑΔΗ ΠΟΥ ΝΑ ΜΗΝ ΕΙΝΑΙ …..ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΑ……!!!! ΜΟΝΟ ΚΑΙ ΚΑΘΑΡΑ ΧΩΡΙΣ ΚΑΜΙΑ ΑΜΦΙΒΟΛΙΑ….ΤΟ ΠΑΝΕ ΓΙΑ Made in Etruria …!!!   ΣΑΝ ΤΟ MADE IN MACEDONIA …………ΑΛΛΑ ΜΕΣΩ ΣΥΓΓΡΑΜΜΑΤΩΝ….. ΤΡΟΠΟΥ ΤΟΠΟΘΕΤΗΣΗΣ ΣΤΑ ΕΚΘΕΜΑΤΑ ΜΕΓΑΛΩΝ ΕΚΘΕΣΕΩΝ ΤΟΥ ΚΟΣΜΟΥ….ΣΤΟ ΔΙΑΔΥΚΤΙΟ  ΚΑΙ ΔΙΑΦΟΡΑ ΤΕΤΟΙΑ. …..ΟΛΑ ΑΡΧΙΖΟΥΝ ΕΤΣΙ ΣΙΓΑ-ΣΙΓΑ…….ΑΛΛΑ ΠΑΛΙ  ΚΑΙ ΚΑΝΕΙΣ ΔΕΝ ΜΙΛΑΕΙ ΑΚΑΔΗΜΑΪΚΟΣ ΔΙΚΟΣ ΜΑΣ  Η ΚΑΠΟΙΟΣ ΑΛΛΟΣ ΟΠΟΙΟΣΔΗΠΟΤΕ .......Η ΚΑΝΩ ΛΑΘΟΣ…!!!.

ΑΥΤΑ ΤΑ  ΒΡΗΚΑΜΕ  ΤΥΧΑΙΑ  ΣΤΟ  ΔΙΑΔΙΚΤΥΟ  ΣΕ ΕΝΑ ΜΟΝΟ ΙΣΤΟ-ΤΟΠΟ ….ΤΟ 2007…….. ΝΑ ΕΙΣΤΕ ΚΑΛΑ.

ΝΦ

 

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